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Water softening and de-ironing

Ūdens mīkstināšana un atdzelžošana

One of the main domestic water treatment are filters for water softening or complex water purification.

Water hardness

The problem of water hardness is common both tap and well water. In the tap water the hardness is usually within the norm or slightly exceeds it. But the hardness for well or artesian water it can be 3-5 times higher than the standard value.

The main problem with hard water is that it tends to leave scale on heating elements and an unpleasant lime scale on plumbing and tiles. Hardness salts reduce the energy efficiency of heating systems, the service life of the heating elements of the boiler and washing machine and also get worse the appearance of the bathroom and dishes in the kitchen.

 The process of softening the water

There are three methods of softening the water:

  • ion exchange;
  • introduction of reagents;
  • reagentless installations.

Ion exchange

The principle of ion exchange is based on the properties of synthetic polymer resins. They are granules that contain specific ion exchange groups on their surface. They can attach metal cations to themselves and exchange them, for example, ions from the resin surface for ions from water.

The principle of operation of household cationites is that the ion exchange resin contains sodium ions on its surface. When hard water passes through the layer of ion exchange resin, these sodium ions are detached from the surface and replaced by the basic ions of hardness — calcium and magnesium.  As a result, we get water that contains sodium salts, which are not capable of forming plaque and scale, instead of calcium and magnesium bicarbonates, which are the source of scale on heaters and white streaks on plumbing.

This is how the Ecosoft FU and BWT Perla filter systems work. The mentioned filter systems are available in two formats:

  1. A cylinder with filter material and a separate tank, inside which a regeneration solution is prepared to restore the balance of the same sodium in the cationite.
  2. A compact water softener for an apartment or a small house is a rectangular structure in which a column with filter material and a salt-solvent tank are separated inside the housing.

Water softening and de-ironing

Main filter for softening the water

It involves the passage of water through materials impregnated with special substances – antiscalants (chemicals that are designed to inhibit the formation and precipitation of crystallized mineral salts that form scale). When they get into water, they bind hardness salts into complex compounds, preventing their sedimentation in the form of carbonates. This is how a water softener for a washing machine or boiler works.

Reagentless technologies

Reagentless technologies ensure the influence of various factors on water such as a magnetic field or nanocrystallization.  BWT AQA NANO systems affect water with an electric field, which causes the formation of nanocrystals with a negative charge that are  unable to “land on the surface”. Such systems are good because they do not require flushing, salt and regular replacement of replaceable cartridges.


Usually this is the problem of well water. Iron almost always goes along with hardness, sometimes also with manganese. Its source is mostly surface water bodies. If the water is supplied centrally from wells and is not completely purified, then the iron may be present in the centralized water supply system.

The consequence of the increased iron content is a red layer on plumbing, a yellowish shade of water and an unpleasant metallic smell. All these consequences are noticeable when the indicators are at the upper limit of the maximum permissible concentration. In well water the indicators can reach several units of the maximum permissible concentration.

How does a water purifiers work?

In water iron is found mainly in two forms: divalent (soluble in water) and trivalent (forms a sediment). The first is soluble iron and there is a lot of it in well water. In the air it turns into trivalent iron oxide, which forms plaque, rusty flakes and other problems.

Iron filters are always based on the catalytic properties of filter materials. The principle of their operation is that when water passes through the loading layer, it comes into contact with the active surface of the grains of the material, which contributes to the accelerated transition of iron into an insoluble form. After that, compounds of ferric iron settle in the loading column and the water comes out clean.

The Ecosoft company has developed a unique catalytic material of Ecomix, which allows softening and de-ironing of water, as well as reducing the amount of organic substances, simultaneously in one filter.

Water softening and de-ironing

Material of Ecomix consists of:

  • ion exchange resin, which is intended for softening water;
  • catalytic sorbent FerroSorb, which is capable of quickly and effectively oxidizing iron and manganese ions;
  • catalytic sorbent HumiSorb, which is capable of reducing the color of water by removing humic substances (organic substances of natural origin);
  • quartz sand and light inert material, which are intended for full washing and operation of the filter.

The Ecomix material is loaded into a regular filter for softening water. The best solution for complex water cleaning will be the Ecosoft FK line filters. You can familiarize yourself with Ecosoft products offered by SIA “Centavr” here.

Read also: Iron .

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